Solid-state batteries

 

Solid-state batteries might be the next major advancement in smartphone battery technology. In short, solid-state batteries are safer, can pack in more juice, and can be used for even thinner devices. Unfortunately, they’re prohibitively expensive to put into medium-sized smartphone cells right now, but that might change in the coming years.

So, if you’ve been wondering what exactly a solid-state battery is and how it’s different to today’s lithium-ion cells.

 

WORKING OF SOLID STATE BATTERY

Electrolyte
An electrolyte is a substance that dissociates into positive and negative ions. Electrolytes are usually Solid or Liquid and are called electrolytic solutions.

Ionic conductivity
The property that ionized species (atoms or molecules in an ionic state) can move in a solid or liquid. Ionic conductivity is expressed in Siemens/cm (S/cm); ionic compounds with high ionic conductivity are suitable for batteries because their ionized species can move rapidly.

 

Solid-state battery is a battery that uses both solid electrodes and solid electrolytes, instead of the liquid electrolytes used in LI-ION batteries.

DIFFERENT Types of solid-state electrolytes

There are eight different major categories of solid-state batteries, which each use different materials for the electrolyte. These are Li-Halide, Perovskite, Li-Hydride, NASICON-like, Garnet, Argyrodite, LiPON, and LISICON-like.

As we’re still dealing with emerging technology, researchers are still coming to grips with the best types of solid-state electrolyte to use for different product categories. None have come out as clear leaders just yet, but sulfide-based, LiPON, and Garnet cells are currently seen as the most promising.

 

 DIFFERENCE B/W LI-ION AND SOLID STATE BATTERY

The key difference between the commonly used lithium-ion battery and a solid-state battery is that the former uses a liquid electrolytic solution to regulate the flow of current, while solid-state batteries opt for a solid electrolyte. A battery’s electrolyte is a conductive chemical mixture that allows the flow of current between the anode and cathode.Solid-state batteries still work in the same way as current batteries do, but the change in materials alters some of the battery’s attributes, including maximum storage capacity, charging times, size, and safety

IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AND SAFE

A battery producing electricity comprises a cathode, an anode, and a liquid electrolyte*1 (Fig. 1). Recently, technologies used in manufacturing batteries, such as packaging technology, have been improved; however, there seems to be still no end to accidents involving the deformation, expansion, and ignition of batteries due to overheating. Also, many people may have encountered the leakage or freezing of liquid electrolyte in car batteries. These problems with the performance and safety of batteries will be solved when all-solid-state batteries using solid electrolytes are realized.

SIZE OF SOLID STATE BATTERIES COMPARED WITH LI-ION BATTERY

Conventional liquid-soaked battery separators come in with a 20-30 micron thickness. Solid-state technology can decrease the separators down to 3-4 microns each, a roughly 7-fold space-saving just by switching materials.

INCREASED IN ENERGY DENSITY  WITH SMALL SIZE AND INCREASED LIFE OF BATTERY

However, these separators aren’t the only component inside the battery and other bits can’t shrink down as much, putting a limit on the space-saving potential of solid-state batteries.

Even so, solid-state batteries can pack in up to twice as much energy as Li-ion, when replacing the anode with a smaller alternative as well.

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