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Differential thermal effects of immersion of silica in water and decane vs time
An important characteristic of highly disperse materials is the ability to interact with water that allows one to distinguish hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The interaction with water plays an important role in many industrial processes, forecasting physical and chemical effects and in the final performance characteristics of the materials. For films and flat surfaces, the hydrophobicity is determined by the water contact angle, but for powders a method of measurement of heats of immersion in polar and nonpolar liquids (e.g.
Viscosity vs. shear rate
Rheology is one of the most informative methods to characterize fluids, complex disperse products, as well as polymers solutions and melts, for industrial, food, domestic usage.
Rheological properties are explored to control the quality of products and raw materials.
Rheological studies allow estimating the process characteristics and choosing optimal power of equipment.
Evaluation of rheological characteristics allows studying the chemical, mechanical and thermal processing, as well as the effects of additives and reactions pathways.
Schematic representation delivery of the drug from the patch into the skin
Therapeutic transdermal drug delivery systems (TTDDS) also known as “patches”. Transdermal patch is an alternative dosage form. It is designed to deliver a therapeutically effective amount of drug across a patient’s skin. TTDDS have many indisputable and obvious advantages over other dosage forms:
- The ability to provide more rapid drug effect
- Easy way to use
- Reducing the frequency of the appointment by delivering the required dose of the drug over a longer period of time.
Scheme of hybrid material structure
Immobilization of enzymes by inclusion into a polymeric shell provides effect similar to one in vivo, but, unfortunately, polymers are unaligned to bactericidal influence. The use of hybrid organic-inorganic composites gives an additional advantage caused by double protection of enzymatic preparation from negative effects of environment.
Photo and SEM image with XRD pattern of SaltDenSil with nano-Ag/nanosilica
Fine powdered material "SaltDenSil" with bulk density of 300-400 g/L is based on fumed nanosilica with deposited monolayer or multilayers of such inorganic salts as silver nitrate, copper sulfate or oxide, zinc sulfate or oxide, sodium or potassium chloride, iodide or phosphate, nanoscaled metallic silver particles, etc. The main feature of SaltDenSil is that all deposits are in nanostructured state that is of importance for highly efficient use of the materials in different applications.
SaltDenSil can be used in a variety of systems aimed for various applications such as:
Technology of ice cream
Institute of Surface Chemistry together with National University of Food Technologies carried out R&D on the technology of ice-cream, soufflé and natural fillers with adjusted taste, moisture binding and rheological properties. The latter are regulated by activation of the functional and technological characteristics of natural polysaccharides used.
Microphotographs of two types of hybrid materials obtained using scanning electron microscopy. Formation of silica components in composites (A) through the sol-gel process and (B) using fumed nanosilica A300 composed of nanoparticles (8-12 nm in diameter) forming aggregates (< 1000 nm) and agglomerates of aggregates (> 1000 nm) . Different morphologies of silicas affect not only structure of composites, but also a drug release rate.
Composites based on nano-structured fumed silica-polymers systems are widely used for various purposes, e.g. as drug delivery systems in medicine. Control of bioactive substance release can be achieved by varying the composition and structure of the composites to maintain an optimal concentration during patient treatment. One possible use of these systems is in anesthesia. Nanocomposites can act as absorbents of toxins that allows us to use them to improve patient's condition and reduce the time of recovery.
Images of polymeric (top) and polymeric-activated carbon cryogels (bottom)
Various polymeric and polymer/protein hydrogels can be synthesized as cryogels at subzero temperatures. They can be purely organic or filled with solid nano/microparticles. Cryogels possess unique properties and controlled structural characteristics.
Cryogels are characterized by very broad pore size distribution from nanometers to hundreds of micrometers.
Cryogels can absorb large amounts of water and characterized controlled swelling degree.
Cryogels are characterized by high biocompatibility due to the use of biopolymeric or protein matrices.