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Категории: Scientific services · Devices and technologies

High-resolution TEM images of  cryo-nanosilica (top) and nanooxide  with alumina-silica-titania (bottom) (scale bar 100 nm)

Department of Amorphous and Structurally Ordered Oxides (DASOO), Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry (CISC) of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine deals with fundamental and applied problems in chemistry, physics and technology of nanooxide materials, nanocomposites, adsorbents, fillers, etc. It includes two laboratories and five groups with seventeen scientists (including two DSc and nine PhD).

TEM images of carbon/silica composites of different morphology

A variety of carbon-mineral composites (CMC), especially carbon-nanosilica and carbon nanoparticles bound to various solid matrices was   prepared using different methods. There are CMC with nonporous and strongly porous carbons with the specific surface area of 50-1500 m2/g. The  CMC characteristics are controlled by choice of precursors, reaction and treatment conditions.

There are several types of  composites:

- mechanical mixtures differently treated;

- carbonized organics at a solid surface;

Images of polymeric (top) and polymeric-activated carbon cryogels (bottom)

Various polymeric and polymer/protein hydrogels can be synthesized as cryogels at subzero temperatures. They can be purely organic or filled with solid nano/microparticles. Cryogels possess unique properties and  controlled structural characteristics.

Cryogels are characterized by very broad pore size distribution from nanometers to hundreds of micrometers.

Cryogels can absorb large amounts of water and characterized controlled swelling degree.

Cryogels are characterized by high biocompatibility due to the use of biopolymeric or protein matrices.

Microphotographs of two types of hybrid materials obtained using scanning electron microscopy. Formation of silica components in composites (A) through the sol-gel process and (B) using fumed nanosilica A300 composed of nanoparticles (8-12 nm in diameter) forming  aggregates (< 1000 nm) and agglomerates of aggregates (> 1000 nm) . Different morphologies of silicas affect not only structure of composites, but also a drug release rate.

Composites based on nano-structured fumed silica-polymers systems are widely used for various purposes, e.g. as drug delivery systems in medicine. Control of bioactive substance release can be achieved by varying the composition and structure of the composites to maintain an optimal concentration during patient treatment. One possible use of these systems is in anesthesia. Nanocomposites can act as absorbents of toxins that allows us to use them to improve patient's condition and reduce the time of recovery.

Technology of ice cream

Institute of Surface Chemistry together with National University of Food Technologies carried out R&D on the technology of ice-cream, soufflé and natural fillers with adjusted taste, moisture binding and rheological properties. The latter are regulated by activation of the functional and technological characteristics of natural polysaccharides used.

Photo and SEM image with XRD pattern of SaltDenSil  with nano-Ag/nanosilica

Fine powdered material "SaltDenSil" with bulk density  of 300-400 g/L is based on fumed nanosilica with deposited monolayer or multilayers of such inorganic salts as silver nitrate,  copper sulfate or oxide, zinc sulfate or oxide, sodium or potassium  chloride, iodide or phosphate, nanoscaled metallic silver particles, etc. The main feature of SaltDenSil is that all deposits are in nanostructured state that is of importance for highly efficient use of the materials in different applications.

SaltDenSil can be used in a variety of systems aimed for various applications such as:

Scheme of hybrid material structure

Immobilization of enzymes by inclusion into a polymeric shell provides effect similar to one in vivo, but, unfortunately, polymers are unaligned to bactericidal influence. The use of hybrid organic-inorganic composites gives an additional advantage caused by double protection of enzymatic preparation from negative effects of environment.

Schematic representation delivery of the drug from the patch into the skin

Therapeutic transdermal  drug delivery systems (TTDDS) also known as “patches”. Transdermal patch is an alternative dosage form. It is  designed to deliver a therapeutically effective amount of drug across a patient’s skin.  TTDDS have many indisputable and obvious advantages over other dosage forms:

- The ability to provide more rapid drug effect

- Easy way to use

- Reducing the frequency of the appointment by delivering the required dose of the drug over a longer period of time.

Methods such as Infrared, UV-vis, NMR spectroscopies, XPS, XRD, temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometry (TPD MS), MALDI, thermogravimetry (TG), chromatography, and element analysis allow one to obtain information on chemical structure and composition of solid materials and liquids.

Viscosity vs. shear rate

Rheology is one of the most informative methods to characterize fluids, complex disperse products, as well as polymers solutions and melts, for industrial, food, domestic usage.

Rheological properties are explored to control the quality of products and raw materials.

Rheological studies allow estimating the process characteristics and choosing optimal power of equipment.

Evaluation of rheological characteristics allows studying the chemical, mechanical and thermal processing, as well as the effects of additives and reactions pathways.

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